JNK1 And Cancer Pathogenesis
Properties and Function of JNK1 c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), also commonly known as Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8), is a member of the JNK subgroup of MAP kinases. JNK1 is encoded by the MAPK8 gene. MAP kinases form a superfamily of protein kinases that function by phosphorylating various protein substrates, including transcription factors, which
RIGI Cytosolic RNA Sensor
RIG-I-Like Receptors Retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) is a cytoplasmic RNA helicase member of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family of proteins. RIG-I is highly conserved within vertebrates. Structurally, RIG-I is comprised of three main functional domains – Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD) for signal transduction, DExD/ H-box RNA helicase domain, and C-terminal domain for
Abstract: Clinical trials continue to determine whether therapeutic modulation of kinases can be used to suppress the immune system in autoimmune diseases or stimulate for antiviral and cancer immunotherapy. The discovery and characterization of small molecule modulators have aided these efforts. The Transcreener ADP² Kinase Assay meets this need as it relies on direct ADP
B4GalT1 A Target to Stop Glioblastoma
Multi-faceted Properties of B4GalT1 Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GalT1) belongs to the galactosyltransferase (GalT) family of enzymes that transfer galactose from uridine-diphosphate-α-D-galactose (UDP-Gal) to an acceptor sugar molecule. B4GalT1 is a critical enzyme in galactose metabolism. One of the first GalT to be characterized biochemically, B4GalT1, was also involved in lactose production by interacting with α-lactalbumin during
IKK Complex & Inflammation
Components of the IKK Complex The IκB kinase (IKK) complex consists of two catalytic subunits IKKα (IKK1) and IKKβ (IKK2), as well as a non-catalytic accessory protein IKKγ. IKKγ is also known as NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO). IKKα and IKKβ have high sequence homology and hence, are structurally similar. Both of those subunits possess phosphorylating
malignant adenocarcinoma could be treated by NUDT5 Inhibitors
NUDT5 is found to be overexpressed in certain cancers in humans Could NUDT5 inhibitors lead to new cancer treatments? NUDIX hydrolases are a superfamily of enzymes are found in all classes of organisms and are responsible for hydrolyzing modified nucleoside diphosphates. One of the most well-studied NUDIX hydrolases is NUDT1 (also known as MTH1); it
Scientist Working on CD38 Discovery
Cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) is a multifaceted protein contributing to immune response, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. Furthermore, it plays a vital role in calcium signaling, which is necessary for further cell signaling. Calcium acts as a second messenger regulating muscle contraction, cell growth, fertilization, and cellular motility, to name a few areas of
JAK3 Inhibitors In the Fight Against Autoimmune Disease
Autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), just to name a few, affect millions of people and have various contributing factors that lead to disease; some known and some unknown.   These disorders occur due to the immune system’s failure to discriminate between self vs. foreign entities. Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) is
Targeting Adenosine Kinase In the Fight Against Neurological Disorders
Could targeting Adenosine Kinase help lead to treatments for neurological disorders and chronic pain? Adenosine, one of four nucleoside building blocks to DNA and RNA, has a shielding effect on a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, various forms of neuronal hyperexcitability, and/or toxicity, including hypoxia, seizures, and chronic pain. This cellular activity modulator brings
NSP13 Inhibitors as COVID-19 Treatments
Could NSP13 be the target to help treat some respiratory infections such as SARS-CoV-2? Respiratory diseases caused by coronaviruses (CoVs) vary in symptoms, severity, and risk. Typically, symptoms are mild and known as the common cold, while others are more severe and lead to pneumonia or bronchitis, chest pains, and possibly death. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV