Kinases are essential players in cellular functions such as cell signaling, cellular transport, and protein regulation. For these reasons, many kinases are innate immunity targets. A kinase assay kit is ideal whether used for drug screening and dose-response measurements or detection when studying a particular cellular pathway. A universal ADP assay allows researchers to screen virtually any kinase target with one assay technology.
The human immune response is incredible and incredibly complex. It acts quickly and is considered the first line of defense against pathogens and foreign DNA from sources such as tumor cells. The innate immune response relies on several cell types and a multitude of proteins such as interferons (INFs) to be effective. This group of cytokines consists of three types and facilitates the removal of viral pathogens. Other types of cytokines include chemokines, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumor necrosis factors (TNF). Since cytokines are involved in multiple cell signaling pathways, an imbalance can contribute to various illnesses.
As a first-line defense against illnesses, the body’s inflammatory response is activated. Inflammation is a necessary step in the immune response, allowing our bodies to fight and eliminate disease, allergies, and injuries. The inflammatory response recruits several mediators to aid in the destruction of whatever pathogen caused the reaction in the first place. However, even this natural response can lead to disease if not regulated.
Cytokines are responsible for driving and regulating the immune response. An imbalance can contribute to excessive inflammation. Janus kinases (JAK) are tyrosine kinases that activate cytokines by offering a phosphate group, taking from ATP leaving ADP.2 JAKs are just one group of kinases of many involved in the innate immune response that can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. Others that have been examined are AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), TANK Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1), and IκB Kinase (IKK), to name a few.1
A Kinase Assay Kit to Interrogate Innate Immunity Targets
Researchers have already started discovering hundreds of kinase inhibitors to combat a plethora of illnesses, including cancer and inflammatory-related disease; however, there is much to learn and even more potential for drug discovery. The Transcreener® ADP² Kinase Assay can detect the enzymatic activity of Kinases, ATPases, and virtually any enzyme that produces ADP.
Making the assay unique, it detects kinase activity, including serine/threonine protein kinases, making it ideal for inhibitor selectivity profiling. The easy-to-use universal ADP kinase assay kit limits the need for specific substrate selective reagents.
As complex as the human immune response is and we continue to discover pathways and proteins involved that add to the complexity, researchers likewise persist in finding treatments for the many diseases caused by a compromised immune system.
- Targeting Kinases Involved in the Innate Immune Response Using the Transcreener M Meera Kumar, Justin Brink, and Robert G . Lowery ADP. (2007), 8.
- Gaestel, M., Kotlyarov, A., & Kracht, M. (2009). Targeting innate immunity protein kinase signaling in inflammation. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 8(6), 480–499. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd2829